The first decision dealt with the matter of authority. The Council decreed that both Scripture and tradition were to be of equal authority. This was a denial of the position known as sola scriptura or the Bible alone possessing the supreme authority in the Church. In addition, the Latin Vulgate translation was declared the official Bible of the Church. As a result, a translation of the Scriptures was given more authority than the Scriptures in the source languages of Hebrew and Greek. In addition, the canon of Scripture was enlarged because the Vulgate contained additional books, called the Apocrypha, that the Protestants rejected as canonical Scripture.
The Council of Trent also reiterated the Church’s sole authority to interpret the Scriptures. This reinforced the position of the Magisterum or the teaching office of the Church. The exclusive right of the Church to interpret Scripture was one of the positions that Luther had attacked in his tract An Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. Luther taught that the doctrine of the priesthood of believer meant that the individual Christian possessed the ability to interpret the Scriptures accurately. Although the Church did not officially condemn vernacular translations of the Bible, this canon effectively accomplished the same result.
Trent upheld the validity of the seven sacraments. Again, this was the subject of another tract by Luther: The Babylonian Captivity of the Church. Luther demonstrated that only Baptism and the Eucharist were valid sacraments because the Lord Himself had ordained them. Now the Church officially denied what Luther had written nearly twenty-five years before. According to Trent, the Church was to be a sacramental church. The grace of God was to be distributed to its faithful members via the sacraments. This was a denial of the ministry of the Holy Spirit Who distributed grace in His own power. In addition, the doctors of Trent forbade “communion in both kinds,” meaning that they only allowed the laity to partake of the bread, but not the cup. Luther had previously protested against the practice of withholding the cup from the laity, citing the words of the Lord Jesus in which he declared that believers were to partake of both the bread and the cup.
However, the severest condemnation of Protestant doctrine was reserved for the doctrine of justification by faith. If the doctrine of sola scriptura had been rejected by assigning authority to both the Scriptures and tradition, the doctrine of sola fide or by faith alone was decisively spurned by the canons of Trent respecting justification. The nature of justification was broadened to include moral renovation as well as the forgiveness of sins. The Reformers taught that justification was God’s act of declaring the sinner righteous upon the imputation of Christ’s righteousness. Justification was, therefore, a change of one’s legal status before God. They used the phrase alien righteousness to stress that the righteousness that justifies an individual originated totally outside of the person. In contrast, Rome declared that justification, while including the forgiveness of sins, also included a change of moral nature. As a result, justification was defined as a process whereby a baptized individual co-operated with the infused righteousness of Christ more and more until they became morally renovated. The Church made justification dependent upon the sacrament of baptism and the person’s co-operation with infused grace and not on faith alone.
The Reformers also taught the doctrine of solus Christus whereby it was Christ’s righteousness alone that was imputed to the believer. The position adopted at the Council of Trent impugned the sole sufficiency of Christ to save a person from their sin and made salvation to be a cooperative effort of Christ and the person.
Attached to its dogmatic teachings concerning the doctrine of justification were a number of anathemas or damnations on those who held opposing positions. Without question, the Council’s pronouncements on this vital doctrine (and whether it was an imputed or an infused righteousness that justifies the person) remain the major impediments to any reunion between the Protestants and Roman Catholics. While both parties would agree that righteousness is required for justification, the questions regarding its nature (Christ’s righteousness alone or a combination of Christ’s righteousness and the individidual’s) and how one receives it (by faith alone or by the sacrament of baptism) have never been agreed upon by the two sides.
The link takes the reader to the article from which this material is taken.
In December we will have been married 55 years. Over that half-century plus we have benefited in numerous ways because of a habit my wife has practiced with great faithfulness. What is that practice? She reads the fine print.
When I read the news paper I pass over 95% of what I regard as gibberish. I do not read advertisements. I read the last paragraph of editorial articles. I speed read much of what is foisted upon us and labeled as news. I consume less than 1/3 of a cup of coffee in the entire exercise.
When my wife read that same news paper she reads every line. She consumes two full cups of coffee in the span of time in which she reads that same paper. She reads the advertisements. She reads the social page and discovers who is marrying whom. She reads the obituaries and knows who dies, who is related to whom, etc. She knows what is in that paper when she finishes.
Application – When it comes to God’s Word we would all benefit from adopting my wife’s life long habit. She reads through the Bible twice each year. She reads while listening to the Scripture on DVD’s. She knows what God’s Word says. She is equipped to live in obedience because she has ‘Read The Fine Print!’
We have saved significant sums of money because she reads the fine print. My riding mower is 15 years old. We purchased that piece of equipment one Father’s Day because she read the fine print. We purchased that mower at a 30% savings. We are able to enjoy fine dining at greatly reduced prices because she reads the fine print. Our grand children receive wonderful gifts for their birthdays because she reads the fine print.
Let me encourage you to adopt and embrace her habit. Read the fine print. Life will be greatly enriched and enjoyable when you do so.
Read the Word of God Prayerfully, Carefully and in precise and express detail. Then apply Truth to Life and know God’s richest blessing and the power of Truth lived out with consistency!
I recently participated in a Men’s Bible Study, about 20 men on a Wednesday evening. The study was on the Book of Galatians. The gentleman leading the study began by asking the following question:
‘What is the Gospel?’
There were two very feeble and incomplete attempts to answer that question. Then lots of blank stares and silence. This raises the issue of Biblical Literacy. If there is not a clear and focused understanding of the basic premise – - ‘What is the Gospel?’ imagine the depth of deficiency on such topics as:
Remember, this is a men’s class. Men are charged with leading their homes and families. If they cannot answer this most basic question ‘What is the Gospel?’, the next generation is wide open to every form of heresy and False Doctrine that is rapidly escalating and flooding in our land.
A return to Catechism that begins at the earliest age (2) would be a great place to begin. Dad will learn as he teaches and that is a very good thing. ((SELAH)!!
In the mid 90′s Peggy & I went to the Florida Keys. Our visit was in the off season so it was a very relaxed and unhurried time. The weather was unusually cool for Key West so we spent a good bit of time inside.
One of the places I enjoyed was the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Museum. Mel Fisher became famous for his discovery of the Spanish Galleon the Atocha.
I share this bit of nostalgia from our life for a purpose. Mel Fisher (cf. the paragraph below for a summary of his roots) was focused. He invested 20 years treasure hunting for the ship he finally did find. He began each and every day at sea by going to the crew at sun up with the words – “Today’s The Day” meaning the day we will finally find what we are looking for. He suffered incredible set backs, the loss of a son and many other tragic events in his quest to find Spanish Gold.
Fisher was an Indiana-born former chicken farmer who eventually moved to California and opened the first diving shop in the state. He attended Purdue University and was a member of The Delta Chi Fraternity. In 1953, he married Dolores (Deo) Horton who became his business partner. She was one of the first women to learn how to dive and set a women’s record by staying underwater for 50 hours. Mel and Deo had five children: sons Terry, Dirk, Kim and Kane, and daughter Taffi. On July 13, 1975 Mel’s oldest son Dirk, his wife Angel, and diver Rick Gage died after their boat sank due to bilge pump failure during their quest for treasure. Mel struggled through decades of hard times treasure hunting in the Florida Keys with the motto Today’s the Day.
I had followed Fisher’s quest on the History Channel for years (very few commercials and interesting). As I browsed through the museum I noticed Mel was sitting in his office. He invited me in. In the next hour I was privileged to get a first hand account from Mel Fisher of all the history I had watched unfold over the years on the History Channel. Mel was a chain smoker and died of lung cancer in December of 1998.
Mel Fisher had focus. He endured tragedy in his pursuit of gold that perishes. Like the Prophet Amos, a Shepherd and Fruit Farmer, he had an unlikely set of credentials to pursue what he did, Treasure Hunting. He persisted.
As a Pastor we lead people on a quest for a city where the streets are pure gold. That city is eternal not temporal.
Hebrews 11:8-10 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going. By faith he went to live in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, living in tents with Isaac and Jacob, heirs with him of the same promise. For he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God.
Pastor, if Mel Fisher was relentless in his pursuit of gold that perishes, should we not be ever more so relentless in our quest to lead people to that city where Christ is The Light? Today May Be The Day!!
The following is an excerpt from Chapter 16 in Pink’s book titled The Attributes of God. in light of the recent disclosures on the wretched actions of Planned Parenthood it seems appropriate to reflect on God’s Wrath as this nation is surely deserving of that! The link takes the reader to the full article.
It is sad to find so many professing Christians who appear to regard the wrath of God as something for which they need to make an apology, or at least they wish there were no such thing. While some would not go so far as to openly admit that they consider it a blemish on the Divine character, yet they are far from regarding it with delight, they like not to think about it, and they rarely hear it mentioned without a secret resentment rising up in their hearts against it. Even with those who are more sober in their judgment, not a few seem to imagine that there is a severity about the Divine wrath which is too terrifying to form a theme for profitable contemplation. Others harbor the delusion that God’s wrath is not consistent with His goodness, and so seek to banish it from their thoughts.
Yes, many there are who turn away from a vision of God’s wrath as though they were called to look upon some blotch in the Divine character, or some blot upon the Divine government. But what saith the Scriptures? As we turn to them we find that God has made no attempt to conceal the fact of His wrath. He is not ashamed to make it known that vengeance and fury belong unto Him. His own challenge is, “See now that I, even I, am He, and there is no god with Me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal; neither is there any that can deliver out of My hand. For I lift up My hand to heaven, and say, I live forever, If I whet My glittering sword, and Mine hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine enemies, and will reward them that hate Me” (Deut. 32:39-41). A study of the concordance will show that there are more references in Scripture to the anger, fury, and wrath of God, than there are to His love and tenderness. Because God is holy, He hates all sin; And because He hates all sin, His anger burns against the sinner: Psalm 7:11.
Today in Columbia SC the Confederate Flag came down.
I Pastored in Columbia for 20 years. In 1997 I led an effort to expose the wretched racists that existed in many churches there. The ‘Powers that Be’, now deceased, were cowards and would not face the reality of that fact. The reason – ‘We do not want to violate the Autonomy of the Local Church.’
Say what? Rampant blatant racism is ok but we would NEVER trample the Authonomy of the Local Church. Sad, folks, just very very sad. I personally confronted racists and they departed and maligned me. Well la dee dah!
My point is this – removing a Cultural Symbol (and I do NOT have a Dog in that fight) will not change one single heart. A person who has a black heart will still have a black heart whether that flag is flying on the State House Grounds or tucked away in a Museum.
All people are created in the Image of God and by virtue of that fact deserve dignity, respect and they need to hear the Gospel, Repent and Trust Christ. The flag up or down will not accomplish that in anyone’s heart.
That is the Truth with a capital “T”!
The evidence of precipitous decline in the American church is irrefutable. This is true of the main line denominations. Some evangelical denominations are holding their own – numerically. However, there is a huge and fatal fallacy in this portrait of ‘we are ok’!
That fallacy is a seriously flawed metric. It is based on a numerical metric only – how many, how much and how often. When you challenge this you are summarily dismissed and worse. I recently posted this reality on a Seminary Prof’s face book page. Within minutes he removed the post.
Southern Seminary under the leadership of Dr. Al Mohler has produced a 92 page PDF file on the essentials of Church Revitalization. It is free. I will send a copy to anyone who makes that request. There are multiple very credible contributors each addressing a distinct aspect of this process.
Dr. Mohler writes the first chapter. In that material he traces the history of the decline of the church in England. America is racing hard after the same destiny unless immediate, strategic and effective action is taken. DO NOT IGNORE this reality.
My previous BLOG article presented the issue of ‘Critical Mass’. Some churches wait too long. I recently was asked to help a church that needed a pastor. When I inquired about their current state of affairs I learned thy had 6 members left, most 70+ years of age and situated in a very remote rural setting. Folks they are already dead. We just need to conduct the funeral and burial ceremony.
Get this resource. Take the action necessary to see God bring Reformation & Renewal to the assembly where you serve.
Critical Mass is the sum of those issues related to genuine transformation in the life of a local church.
The Number #1 issue for the Pastor/Leadership is creating a sense of urgency to accomplish the level and character of change necessary to thrive not merely ‘survive’. Unless they take strategic and focused action, they probably will not. If this mentality of “we shall not be moved” prevails they will ‘go the way of all flesh’. Simply stated the mantra congregations cling to is:
“That may be true for other assemblies but it is most certainly not true of ours.”
First, the purpose of the church, every church, is to “Make Disciples.” To accomplish that there must be a clear and well formulated definition – what is a disciple?
Second, there must be an intentional Strategy and process to make disciples. Parking your car in a stable will not cause it to suddenly turn into a horse. “Going” to church will not suddenly cause people to become fully formed obedient disciples of Jesus Christ.
Third, there must be an objective measurement process to determine growth, maturity in Christ. You must measure spiritual growth by a standard other than the usual subjective “Pastor I sure enjoyed that message.” Howard Hendricks referred to that as the “glorification of the worm” ceremony that takes place in the foyer after each Sunday morning service. In reality, nothing changes in peoples lives and they are not fully formed disciples of Jesus Christ. (Barna recently produced statistics that reflect in Baptist life only 44% of those who attend regularly are affected in any way by their participation in “church”. This by the way is the poorest % among all denominations evaluated). There must be ACCOUNTABILITY in this process for everyone, myself included. None of us went to our teachers and requested additional testing when we were in school. Neither will we seek all that is needed for Transformation if we are left to ourselves to accomplish this. We need “Life in Community”, mutual inter-dependence upon the LORD and one another.
The following items constitute critical issues in attempting this Transformation.
1. This is a Process not an event.
2. 47% of the people in a congregation are opposed to change, any change. 17% of the people in a congregation want “peace at any price – they cannot function in the midst of any conflict. They form an alliance with those opposed to change. This results in a 64% “opposition force” that must be overcome if systematic, measurable positive transformation is going to take place.
3. If this level of transformation could be accomplished without an “outside voice”, you would already have made the transition. You need the counsel and mentoring of an experienced “Change Agent’ to guide you through these turbulent and challenging waters. (Barna says that only 1 in 8 pastors is in his terminology a “habitual leader” as compared to a “situational leader”. IUS sees this number as 1 in 10).
There is one other utterly CRUCIAL dimension of this entire scheme. Most churches wait until AFTER they have passed the point of no return to attempt correction. Cf. Numbers 14:39-45. The nation had listened to the voice of the ten rather than the two. Joshua & Caleb urged the nation to enter the land God was giving them. The ten led a rebellion, seeking to stone Moses. In the passage cited they engage in pseudo repentance, repentance that is motivated merely by self preservation rather than a desire to honor and glorify the God who had rescued them from bondage in Egypt. After they have lost all semblance of effectiveness, lost many of their people and lost the power and presence of the Holy Spirit, then and only then will they attempt recovery and marvel when God is not with them. Read the entire context of Numbers 13 & 14. Notice that God brought a plague upon those so called leaders for their willful disobedience to His clear direction. He does not take lightly the disobedience of leaders. Reflect on where you should be where you are. You may indeed have time to act if you do it NOW!
Focus Issues Constituting Critical Mass:
1. Human Resource – (people)
Generally a local assembly needs 20-25 wholly dedicated people to complete essential tasks – AWANA, Sunday School, Small Group Leadership, etc.
The profile of the people who remain is more important than the simple number of people. If those who remain have a genuine passion to see
Transformation accomplished it may well become a reality.
A posture of surrender and absolute dependence on the LORD is essential.
2. Fiscal Resource – (finances)
Key factor in this arena is the prospects for stability; 3-5 year outlook.
Cf. Luke 14:28-30
Develop a Funding Plan for ministry that eliminates EVERYTHING that is not essential for funding the Transformation process (there are ALWAYS items that can be eliminated- we provide guidelines for this process)
3. Physical Plant – (capital improvements)
Complete a top to bottom assessment of the entire campus. Are there any major systems that may fail (Heating, Air Conditioning, Roofs, etc).
What needs to be accomplished to get the facility into the 21st century? Sound System, Child Care & Nursery Facilities, etc.
What may be accomplished immediately with a minimum of $$ cost to enhance your profile in the eyes of guests.
4. Purpose – (80% + Transformation)
Real progress is possible when 80% + of the congregation are willing to embrace the new initiatives and direction. They do not need to be “cheerleaders” but progress is not likely if there are people actively producing resistance. Once the direction and purpose has been established, there needs to be a gracious but firm termination of such resistance. The key factor in this is the question – - “Do you have any credible exegetical support for the positions you are taking?” I have NEVER found anyone who had any other than “We don’t like what is going on’ as their response. Move on!
5. Healthy Relationships – (No Schisms)
There must be a brutally honest review in EVERYONES life. Are there any unresolved broken relationships in their lives? This includes with their nuclear family, other Christians, neighbors, etc. When we come clean with God on this issue, His blessings flow freely. Refusal to engage this matter usually produces a dark cloud of frustration over the entire process.
Pastor & other leaders must lead in this matter. They must MODEL (1 Cor. 4:16-17) what they expect the congregation to embrace.
The Bad News – This process is brutal, emotionally, mentally and spiritually exhausting. The cost in personal energy and focus is immense. Weigh this carefully before saying “I Do”!
The Good News – According to Leading Turnaround Churches (p. 13).
Is there really hope for me?
Yes, if you are fully committed to seeing positive change take place in the church you pastor and are willing to pay the price.
Yes, is you are convinced God has placed you in the church where you are, for the sake of winning the lost, building the saints, equipping the workers, and multiplying leaders who make disciples who make disciples.
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Go to a ‘Prayer Meeting’. Record the requests that are offered. Compare them to the prayers of the Apostle Paul as found in the Epistles he wrote. Be astonished. Be mortified. Be stunned. Be grieved.
There is little or no correspondence between what you heard as ‘requests’ and the prayers of Paul. The former were what I label ‘organ recitals’. Almost entirely requests for physical ailments of one kind or another. That might be legitimate if there were also a corresponding number of requests for spiritual power, forgiveness of sin, confession and repentance, etc. Not so. Paul left Trophimus at Miletus sick (2 Tim 4:20). It is not recorded that he prayed after the fashion we hear most often in our Prayer Meetings. ‘Organ Recitals!’
I offer just one passage that is typical of Paul’s prayers. Please consider and imitate as you pray.
I do not cease to give thanks for you, remembering you in my prayers, 17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory,
1. may give you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of him,
2. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened,
3. that you may know what is the hope to which he has called you,
4. what are the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints,
5. and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power toward us who believe,
I do not cease to give thanks for you, remembering you in my prayers, 17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of him, 18 having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope to which he has called you, what are the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints, 19 and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to the working of his great might 20 that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. 22 And he put all things under his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church, 23 which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. (Ephesians 1:16-23).
But it’s the poor who are really losing. The poorest third of households buy half of all lotto tickets, according to a Duke University study in the 1980s, in part because lotteries are advertised most aggressively in poorer neighborhoods. A North Carolina report from NC Policy Watch found that the people living in the poorest counties buy the most tickets. “Out of the 20 counties with poverty rates higher than 20 percent, 18 had lottery sales topping the statewide average of $200 per adult,” the North Carolina Justice Center reported.
A 1986 California survey found that lottery players were split 50-50 on whether they played for money or for fun. But among those with less than $30,000, “25 percent more respondents cited money rather than fun, while the reverse was true for those with higher incomes,” wrote Garrick Blalock, David R. Just, and Daniel H. Simon in a study “Hitting the Jackpot or Hitting the Skids.” The researchers made another damning discovery: Local lottery ticket sales rise with poverty, but movie ticket sales do not. In other words, lotto games are not merely another form of cheap entertainment. They are also a prayer against poverty. This fits what the researchers call the “desperation hypothesis”: States are making their most hopeless citizens addicted to gambling to pay for government services.
Some policymakers argue that the moral cost of lotteries is low. After all, the games are voluntary. And perhaps the money collected by the state is better off going to schools than to booze and cigarettes and whatever else.
But to see the true source of the lottery’s appeal, don’t look at poor neighborhoods. Focus on the states.
Half a century ago, gambling was criminalized in every state except Nevada. As recently as 1980, just 14 states held lotteries. Today it’s 43. A political cynic might say lotteries are the perfect public policy: A tax disguised as a game without an organized lobby to oppose it. Corporate income taxes punish corporations, and companies respond with lobbyists. Personal income taxes and estate taxes hurt the rich, and rich families fund elections, so no need to elaborate on that problem. But lotteries disproportionately affect the poor, who vote at lower rates, donate less to campaign funds, and have inconstant representation on K Street and its equivalents in the states. So no surprise that, as recently as 2009, lotteries provided more revenue than state corporate-income taxes in 11 of the 43 states where they were legal, including Delaware, Rhode Island, and South Dakota.
In an age of rising income inequality, it’s pernicious that states rely on monetizing the desperate hope of its poorest residents. State lotteries take from the poor to spare the rich, all while marching under the banner of voluntary entertainment. Banning lotto games will not make our poorest communities suddenly rich. But these neighborhoods have lost enough lotteries in life even before they touch a penny to the scratch-off ticket.